Landscape architecture design styles
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Landscape architecture design styles
Landscape architecture design styles are used to classify particular landscape design approaches, such as:
Modernism: An "all-out, all-encompassing approach to design" is a "truly modern style" based on "a system of ideas in design". As a design style, it is "concerned with visual effect, the rational use of nature, beauty, freedom of design, and a spirit of innovation in all aspects of the creative process." Modern landscape architecture is, "for the most part, a product of American culture" and "has become a major vehicle for the expression of American architectural styles".
vernacular: The word vernacular has a number of different meanings. The most common meaning is the "ordinary, common, or usual use, practice, or way of speaking or behaving". Vernacular landscape architecture is related to how landscape architects work on projects, in particular in the United States, where the landscape is "more of a home than a workplace". The design, "often reflects the unique nature of the owner's taste and philosophy". Many vernacular projects are "simple, minimal, or economical in order to be a good neighbor". Landscape architects often choose materials from the market that are readily available and less expensive than professional materials. Many also use existing plant materials.
vernacular: The word vernacular has a number of different meanings. The most common meaning is the "ordinary, common, or usual use, practice, or way of speaking or behaving".
ecopsychology: A number of landscape architecture projects and publications relate to ecopsychology. According to ecopsychology, "the environment is an integral component of our human nature, and must be treated as a major aspect of every human environment, rather than as an afterthought" as in most conventional architecture. The project aims to treat the environment with "more thought and more care than in traditional architecture, but not more than we devote to the other components of architecture". Landscape architecture plays a major role in "increasing access to the natural world", "reducing reliance on fossil fuels", "reducing urbanization and sprawl", "making more efficient use of land", "supporting sustainable tourism", "improving public health" and "reducing threats to water and air quality". The project's aim is to "increase public awareness of the relationship between ecology and architecture".
vernacular building science: A project by Tod Williams and David A. Rockwell at the University of Wisconsin – Madison aims to develop a vernacular building science, "to develop a set of standards for making good architecture choices in the built environment". The project is intended to make more efficient use of materials and space, improve people's health, ease environmental problems, reduce energy consumption and "improve local economies". The building is to have "appropriate material properties for its environmental context, and is adaptable to different situations and cultural contexts".
eco-cities: An example project is the US Green Building Council's LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Eco-City, located in Austin, Texas. The concept is to use environmentally friendly building methods, such as low-energy construction, natural cooling and water harvesting, with sustainable technologies, such as renewable energy sources, a compact urban design, sustainable transportation, recyclable material use and food consumption. The eco-cities integrate the traditional city with a healthy, eco-friendly environment. The cities have been designed to be compact, with open spaces for people and animals.
Green design for the built environment and social sustainability is being incorporated into new projects around the world. Sustainable design is being implemented and developed by architectural practice and the profession.
Green design for the built environment does not limit itself to buildings. A wide range of green design projects encompass urban and community infrastructure, architecture and landscape. Some current examples include New York City’s New Croton Aqueduct (1910–1913) and Chicago’s Chicago Sanitary District Pumping Plant (1906–1912).
A range of other major projects incorporate eco-design, such as the Australian Government's $13 billion National Broadband Network, the UK Government's £13 billion High Speed Rail 2 project, and the UK Government's £10 billion Energy Bill. In addition, cities are also creating new green spaces as well as green roofs and new public spaces. Examples include New York’s Central Park, Chicago’s Millennium Park, Sydney’s Hyde Park and the Chicago Botanic Garden.
In contrast, there is also considerable evidence of traditional green design being abandoned. In 2004, the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) published a report entitled ‘New green in traditional red. A look at the abandonment of green spaces in the United States’. The report demonstrated the impact of the abandonment of green design and design in the natural world, such as the decline in native flora and fauna.
Many architectural education programs in the United States emphasize sustainable design. At many universities students learn courses which include such topics as sustainable design, green architecture, green building design and sustainable infrastructure.
A more recent example of sustainability within the built environment is the design and construction of the Sustainable Energy, Water and Transportation Plan (SEWTP). This plan outlines New York City's efforts to develop policies and programs that promote and improve sustainability across all sectors of the city's economy.
Category:Sustainable urban planning
Category:Environmental design and architecture