Pear Lada: everything about a variety that has been proven for decades
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The very fact that the Lada pear variety is more than half a century old and is zoned over a fairly large territory, makes one think about the advisability of choosing it for planting on the site. Apparently, it is not in vain that so many people choose this variety. Why this is happening - we will try to figure it out.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
The pear variety Lada was selected at the Moscow Agricultural Academy in 1955. In 1980 it was transferred for state variety trials and only in 1993 took its place in the state register of breeding achievements. The area of admission is extensive - the Central, Central Black Earth, North-Western, Middle Volga and even East Siberian regions. Obtained by crossing two varieties of pears, which at that time were often used in breeding. The first pear is Olga, which is widespread in the Far East. From her, Lada got immunity to diseases, early maturity and keeping quality of fruits. The second is the Forest Beauty. She conveyed unpretentiousness, productivity, self-fertility and good taste of the fruit.
A medium-sized tree has a conical and dense crown. The stem has a smooth dark gray bark, the skeletal branches are somewhat lighter. Fruiting of a mixed type - that is, flower buds grow both on ringlets and on twigs, spears, fruits and fruit bags.
Pear Lada bears fruit on all overgrown branches
Lada owes its wide distribution to its qualities:
- High winter hardiness.
- Adaptability to adverse conditions.
- Immunity to diseases, including scab.
- High and annual yield. The average fruit intake is 50 kilograms per tree.
- Early maturity. The first fruits are obtained 3-4 years after vaccination.
- Early ripeness.
The self-fertility of the variety is partial, it needs pollinators, which can be pear varieties:
Fruits are wide pear-shaped, medium-sized. The average fruit weight is 100–120 grams. The main color is light yellow, with barely noticeable subcutaneous dots. The integumentary color of the thin skin is bright red in the form of a blush on the sunny side of the fruit. The stalk has a delicate rustiness. There are few seeds in the fruit - no more than five pieces. The pulp is juicy, tender and fine-grained. It has a pleasant sweet and sour taste and a pronounced pear aroma. Tasters rate the taste of Lada at 4.1-4.4 points.
The cover color of the thin peel of the Lada pear is bright red in the form of a blush on the sunny side of the fruit
Fruits do not tolerate transportation well. Carefully selected fruits, packed in ventilated boxes, can be stored in a basement or refrigerator at 0 ° C for up to two months. Good for processing and fresh consumption as desserts.
Planting pear varieties Lada
How to plant a pear Lada - just like any other. First you need to find a place where the tree will feel good. To do this, you need to know that pears do not grow in wetlands, as well as on soils with a close occurrence of groundwater. Soils with an alkaline reaction are not suitable for them. Will grow better on neutral or slightly acidic. It was noted that at acidity pH 4.2–4.4, the incidence of scab is completely absent. The structure of the soil is important - it must be loose and well-drained. A pear needs a lot of sunlight - it will grow in the shade, but it will not bloom and bear fruit. Cold north winds are not good for Lada. It is better if there is natural protection from the north or northeast of it - a fence, a wall of a building or dense trees. In their absence, experienced gardeners install wooden boards painted white with lime. Coloring, reflecting the sun's rays, contributes to additional lighting and heating of the young tree. The pear will grow well on a small southern or southwestern slope.
The pear grows well on a small slope
The pear is planted in early spring before the onset of sap flow. In the southern regions, you can plant a pear in the fall, but in the northern regions, there is no alternative to spring planting. It is better to buy a seedling in the fall, when nurseries are digging for sale. At this time, the best choice of planting material for any crop. A tree should be chosen at the age of one to two years. Such ones tolerate transplanting much better, take root faster and enter fruiting earlier. When choosing a seedling, attention is paid to the condition of the root system - it must be well developed, without growths and cones. The bark should not have cracks or other damage. Leaves, if present, should be torn off.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time - from the beginning of April to the end of October.
To preserve the seedling, it is buried in the ground. To do this, you need to dig a hole in the garden one meter long and 30-40 centimeters deep. A small layer of sand is poured at the bottom, on which the roots of the seedling are placed. First, you need to dip the roots in a chatterbox, which is prepared from equal parts of clay and mullein with the addition of water. The consistency of the solution should resemble liquid sour cream. This treatment will not allow the roots to dry out. The roots are covered with sand and watered. Before the onset of frost, they fill the hole with earth to the top, leaving the top of the tree outside.
A seedling for winter storage is buried in the garden
You can also store the seedling in the basement, if the temperature in it does not drop below 0 ° C and does not rise above +5 ° C. In this case, the roots also need to create a moist environment, for example, wrap them up with moss and moisten them.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear
The landing algorithm is as follows:
- A landing pit is being prepared in the fall. This is done like this:
- They dig a hole of a suitable size. On fertile lands, 60–70 centimeters deep and the same diameter are enough. The poorer the soil, the more volume will be needed. On sandy soils, pits are made with a volume of at least one cubic meter.
- If the soil is heavy, clayey, a drainage layer 10-15 centimeters thick should be laid on the bottom. For this, you can use broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay. If the soil is sandy, then a layer of clay is laid on the bottom, which will retain water.
Crushed stone can be used as drainage
- They lay food for the future tree. To do this, black soil, peat, humus or compost and sand are poured into the pit (on sandy soils, sand, of course, is excluded) in equal proportions.
- Additionally, 2-3 liters of wood ash and 300-400 grams of superphosphate are poured, after which the mixture is thoroughly mixed with a shovel or pitchfork.
Nutrition for the future tree is laid in the planting pit
- In order to avoid leaching of nutrients, the pit is covered with roofing material, film, etc.
- When it is time for planting, the seedling is taken out of the storage area and inspected for safety. If he wintered well, then soak the roots in water for 2-3 hours. Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Epin or other stimulants of growth and root formation can be added to the water.
- A certain amount of soil is selected from the planting pit so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit in the hole.
- A small mound is formed from the loose soil in the hole. A peg 90-110 centimeters high is driven in 10-15 centimeters from the center.
- A seedling is placed on the mound with the root collar to the top. The roots are spread along the slopes.
- The hole is covered with earth, compaction well. It is important that as a result of this operation, the root collar is at the level of the soil or 2–4 centimeters higher. Deepening of the root collar can lead to its drying out.
It is impossible to deepen the root collar, as this can lead to its damping out.
- A near-trunk circle is formed and a tree is tied to a peg. To do this, use some kind of elastic material so as not to crush the barrel.
- Water the seedling with plenty of water. All soil in the planting pit should be well saturated with water to better adhere to the roots and eliminate air bubbles that inevitably form during backfill.
- After a few days, when the soil dries up and a crust begins to form, the trunk circle must be loosened and mulched. Freshly cut grass, compost, spruce branches, etc. are used as mulch.
- At the end of the planting, the seedling is cut to a height of 60-80 centimeters, and the branches are cut in half.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
It is not difficult to grow a Lada pear. The agricultural technology of caring for it is simple and does not require special knowledge. It is enough to follow a certain set of well-known rules.
The pear is not a drought-resistant crop and requires fairly frequent watering. On average, during the growing season, the interval between waterings is one month. Young trees, the root system of which has not yet grown enough and deepened, require more watering. As a rule, the pear is watered before flowering, after flowering, during the growth of fruits and shoots, two weeks before fruit ripening, after harvest and in autumn. Before watering, the root collar and the lower part of the trunk must be protected from the ingress of water with a roller from dry soil.... If this is not done, the tree may undercut. Every time you need to ensure that the depth of soil moisture is at least 25–35 centimeters. After each watering, when the soil dries up, it must be loosened and mulched.
After each watering, when the soil dries up, it must be loosened and mulched.
If the planting hole was prepared in accordance with the recommendations outlined above, then the nutrients in it should be sufficient for the first years of the tree's life. When the pear begins to bear fruit and the food consumption increases, the plant begins to feed.
Table: types of pear dressings, terms and methods of application
By carrying out pruning, they achieve a decrease in the risks of diseases, an increase in the size of yields and the duration of the active life of a pear.
Formative pruning of the Lada pear in the spring, including in the Moscow region
Regardless of the growing region, the formation of the crown is designed to ensure the convenience of tree maintenance, harvesting, as well as good illumination of the inner space of the crown and its ventilation. The most common sparse-tiered crown shape, as well as a bowl-type shape. Since the crown of Lada tends to a pyramidal shape, a sparse-tiered version will be more appropriate for it.
Step-by-step instructions for forming a sparse-tiered crown of a pear
This form has existed for more than a dozen years and it is not difficult to fulfill it. Formation is carried out annually in early spring before the onset of sap flow.
- Start by trimming the seedling. This step was taken during landing.
- For 2-3 years after planting, cut out all branches on the ring except two or three. Leave branches located at different levels at a distance of 15–20 centimeters from each other. They should also grow in different directions. These are the future skeletal branches of the first tier. They are shortened by 30-40%. The center conductor is also shortened. Its cut should be 20-30 centimeters higher than the upper branch.
- 1-2 years after the formation of the first tier, the second tier of skeletal branches is formed using the same algorithm. By this time, branches of the second order should have already grown on the branches of the first tier. Two of them are left on each skeletal branch and shortened by 40-50%. Excess branches are cut into a ring.
- In the next 1–2 years, the third tier of skeletal branches is formed.
- The process is completed by cutting the center conductor above the base of the upper branch.
Shaping the sparse-tiered crown of a pear takes 4-6 years
This pruning is designed to regulate the thickening and height of the crown. It is also carried out in early spring. And since the crown of Lada is prone to thickening, then, most likely, it will have to be thinned out annually. At the same time, shoots are cut out, growing inward, intersecting and interfering with the ventilation and illumination of the inner space. This must be done without fanaticism, since flower buds are also formed on the inner branches. Excessive thinning can lead to the loss of part of the crop. They also monitor the growth of skeletal branches, periodically shortening them, and transferring them to a lateral shoot, expanding or narrowing the crown.
The purpose of this pruning is to maintain a high level of fruiting. It is carried out by the method of so-called chasing - shortening of young shoots by 10-15 centimeters. This causes their additional branching and the formation of more fruit buds, which increases the yield of the next year. They are minted at the beginning of summer, when there is a rapid growth of young shoots.
Video: An interesting method of supporting pear pruning
As a rule, it is carried out in late autumn after the sap flow has stopped. Cut dry, diseased, as well as damaged shoots. If necessary, additional sanitary pruning can be carried out in early spring.
In order not to harm the tree, it is necessary to carry out all types of pruning in compliance with certain rules:
- Hacksaws, secateurs, loppers, knives used for pruning must be sharply sharpened.
- Before starting work, the tool should be disinfected to prevent infection. To do this, you can apply:
- One percent solution of copper sulfate.
- Hydrogen peroxide solution.
- Cuts of whole branches are made in a ring manner. Do not leave knots and hemp, as after drying, fungi can settle in them.
- Do not try to cut off thick branches in one go - you can damage the neighboring ones, as well as break off part of the bark and wood of the trunk. It is better to do this in several steps, cutting out the branch in parts.
- All sections with a diameter exceeding ten millimeters are cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish or garden paint.
When choosing a garden pitch, it is undesirable to purchase one that contains petrolatum or other refined products. This can harm the plant. It is better to give preference to formulations based on natural ingredients (beeswax, lanolin).
Diseases and pests
Diseases and pests are much more likely to annoy those gardeners who neglect to carry out sanitary and preventive measures.
Table: preventive and sanitary measures
What diseases is the pear Lada susceptible to?
Lada's good immunity to scab and other fungal diseases, in combination with ongoing preventive measures, can save the tree and the crop from trouble. But still, the gardener will not be superfluous to know the signs of major diseases.
As a rule, infection with this fungus occurs in the spring during the flowering period of the pear. Bees and other insects collecting nectar carry fungal spores on their paws. Starting development inside the flower, the fungus moves through the pistil into the shoot and then penetrates into the leaves. These parts of the plant wither, shrivel, and then turn black. From the outside, it looks like a fire or frost burn. This similarity led to the appearance of the second name of the disease - monilial burn. When diagnosing this disease, you should immediately cut out the affected shoots with the capture of 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood in order to prevent the spread of the fungus. After that, a cycle of fungicide treatments is carried out.
In the summertime, the fungus attacks the fruit, on which gray rot appears, making them inedible. Such fruits are also subject to collection and destruction.
Moniliosis affects fruits with gray rot
Scab damage begins with the appearance of olive-brown spots with a velvety surface on the underside of the leaves. Spreading, the scab affects the fruits, on which putrefactive spots appear, the skin cracks, the pulp becomes hard. Affected fruits become unusable and must be destroyed.
Scab spreading affects fruits, on which putrefactive spots appear, the skin cracks, the pulp becomes hard
Most often, this fungus appears in the second half of summer. It is preceded by an attack on the pear by aphids, the sweet secretions of which are a breeding ground for the fungus. A black plaque appears on the leaves, fruits and shoots, resembling soot - hence the name of the fungus. The use of fungicides from the fungus, and insecticides from aphids will help to cope with the problem.
When infected with a sooty fungus, a black plaque appears on the leaves, fruits and shoots of a pear, resembling soot
What pests can attack the Lada pear
It is not difficult to resist pear pests. For this, the implementation of preventive measures is usually enough. But nevertheless it is better to know the enemy by sight.
Pear flower beetle
One of the galaxy of weevils. It hibernates in the soil of the trunk circle, emerging from the pupa at the end of summer. If nothing prevents him, then with the onset of spring, when the soil begins to warm up, it will crawl to the surface and rise to the crown of the tree. There he begins to eat, and first of all he eats away flower buds, which after that will not bloom. Further, he will begin to eat flowers, which nevertheless have blossomed, leaves, ovaries and tips of young shoots. In the initial period, you can collect the bulk of the beetles by hand. To do this, early in the morning, when the air has not yet warmed up and the temperature has not exceeded +5 ° C, they go out into the garden and spread a cloth or film under the tree. At this temperature, the beetles are in a dormant state and sit numb on branches. It remains to shake them off the branches and destroy. Further control is carried out with the use of insecticides, for example, Decis, Fufanon, Iskra-Bio, etc.
At low temperatures, the flower beetle sits on a branch in a daze
This is a nondescript butterfly that lays eggs on the soil of the trunk circles. Caterpillars appear from them, which subsequently crawl along the trunk to the crown and penetrate the fruits, damaging them and making them inedible. Trapping belts installed in the spring, lime whitewashing of boles and fungicide treatments prevent this nuisance.
This nondescript butterfly can ruin the pear harvest
As mentioned above, aphids, in the process of their vital activity, release a sugary liquid, which ants like to eat. They bring aphids to the crowns of trees, where they spread them on the leaves. Control methods are obvious - create barriers for ants, and also treat the crown with insecticides.
Ants love to feast on the sweet secretions of aphids.
The pear variety Lada has many undeniable advantages. Minor flaws are easily overcome and will not become a stumbling block when choosing this variety. Gardeners of the Middle Lane, as well as Eastern Siberia, can confidently recommend this pear for cultivation.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Description of the pear variety Lada - frost resistance, yield, reviews of gardeners, photos
Lada is a widespread pear of Russian selection. Specialists from the Moscow Agricultural Academy were engaged in its breeding. The variety has gained popularity among gardeners. Olga and Lesnaya Krasavitsa were used as initial varieties for crossing. Pear Lada, according to the description of the variety, photos and reviews, is characterized by excellent frost resistance. It is zoned for cultivation in several regions at once.
- Distinctive features
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Landing features
- How to choose a good seedling
- Choosing a landing site
- Laying the landing pit
- Preparing for winter
- Diseases and pests of the pear Lada
- Harvesting and storage
Top 10 hardy pear varieties for your garden
The popularity of pears is so high that every gardener tries to purchase a seedling of this fruit tree in order to enjoy the high juiciness, pleasant aroma and great benefits of this fruit. Poor wintering of pears can become a common problem, which is accompanied by damage to the plant, which significantly reduces the yield. To solve this problem is simple by growing winter-hardy varieties that winter well and are not afraid of frost. We offer a unique top ten winter-hardy pear varieties.
The most popular and delicious varieties
The pear can bear fruit almost all year round.
If you plant pears of early, medium and late varieties in the garden, you can enjoy the taste of these fruits almost all year round. Even on the New Year's table, you will have a dish with fresh, aromatic, home-grown fruits.
The early varieties bear fruit in mid-July-early August, the middle ones delight with their fruits all autumn. And the late ones bear fruit until the very frost, and the fruits, if properly stored, can lie for up to six months.
Early varieties of pears include "Early", "Early summer", "Moldavian early", "Mlievskaya early", "July early", "Early ripe".
Let's take a closer look at the description of one variety - "Columnar white-red". The advantages of this tree are its compact size and incredible fertility. In this case, the tree requires only half a square meter of area.
Along the entire length of the plant, which is about 2.5 m, juicy fragrant pears are densely located. Such a tree can become a highlight of a garden or even a balcony, since, in addition to food, it has an undoubted decorative value.
The fruits of the tree are large and have a bright yellow-red color. The pulp has a wine flavor and a pear aroma. The structure of the pulp is very juicy and soft.
Autumn varieties include - "Bere Moskovskaya", "Yakovleva", "Marble", "Veles", "Krasnobokaya", "Moskvichka". We will describe the last variety. The tree is winter-hardy, for its fruiting, you need to plant a few more trees nearby ("Marble", "Lada") for cross-pollination.
The trees are medium-sized, the adults have a conical shape. Fruits are strongly rounded, yellow, may have a greenish tint, but no blush. Fruits can weigh up to 130 grams.
The flesh of "Moskvichka" is white, fragrant, sweet and sour taste. Among the advantages of the variety are the absence of volunteers, excellent appearance, long storage, resistance to diseases and an aggressive environment.
Late varieties are stored for a very long time.
Otechestvennaya, Saratovka, Kondratyevka are varieties that ripen late. Let's consider the description of the autumn-winter variety "Rossoshanskaya late". It is a high-yielding variety that begins to bear fruit in 5-6 years.
The fruits are very large - 250-350 grams each, they are stored for a long time. The shape is round, the color is yellow with a green tint and blush. The aroma is strong and very fragrant. The pulp melts in the mouth, juicy, creamy texture.
The tree itself is winter-hardy, medium-sized, not demanding on the quality of the soil. Grows well in soil with good drainage. Scab resistant.
Details about caring for a fruit tree
Planting and growing pears: description, types, watering, fertilizing, pruning and other subtleties of tree care (25 Photos & Video) + Reviews
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